how_to_transition_from_virtualbox_to_kvm(37) Language: English

How to transition from VirtualBox to KVM (using Virt-Manager)

----------------------------------------------------------------------[ Meta ]--

name		how_to_transition_from_virtualbox_to_kvm
section		37
description	How to transition from VirtualBox to KVM (using Virt-Manager)
tags		kvm virtualbox virtualization mdvl blog migrate transition kvm
encoding	utf8
compliance	public
lang		en
creation	2016/03/13 13:40:55
web_priority	0.44
attachments	transition_overview.png transition_overview_source.xcf
		vm_preference_virtio.png vm_preference_nocbi.png sshfs.png
		vm_preference_current_max.png vm_net_nointernet.png
		vm_net_default.png vm_saving_error.png vm_saving_line.png
		wguest_addvirtio.png wguest_findvirtio.png wguest_uninstide.png
copyright	Copyright (c) 2016
		For furhter info send an e-mail to

----------------------------------------------------------------[ Motivation ]--

mdvl(32) has long been enhanced with Oracle
VirtualBox( Virtual machines are used to test
new systems (like Debian Sid for a new MDVL), experiment with other OS
(like Solaris) and run Windows software (mainly on an old WindowsXP VM).

While this worked well, the VirtualBox solution had a few disadvantages:

 - Running VMs without GUI was a bit tricky
 - Sometimes the GUI crashed (probably) due to an incompatibility between the
   nVidia and VirtualBox kernel modules -- this problem was rare and hard to
   reproduce but still very annoying
 - VirtualBox requires a Kernel module. While this is not so much of an issue
   thanks to DKMS, it still proved an additional risk/issue during upgrades.
 - Licensing issues: The
   Downloads-Page( for VirtualBox
   mentiones the ``VM VirtualBox Extension Pack'' which is only provided under a
   non-free license which restricts server-usage.
 - It proved to be hard to work with VMs when the GUI crashed
   (sometimes happens even under Linux :) )
 - Remotely accessing VMs via a console (like with VMWare vSphere) was not
   possible (see licensing issues above).
 - VirtualBox did not support proper Windows 3D acceleration.

In order to solve some of these issues, multiple attempts have been made to
transition to KVM with Virt-Manager. The attempts have often failed in early
stages, due to some features being too difficult to use or not even available.

With the advent of Debian Jessie (Debian 8), the situation has finally improved
towards a useful state. This article only discusses the KVM version included
in kernel 3.16 / QEMU emulator version 2.1.2 and virt-manager 1.0.1.
The situation may have improved with newer versions.

-------------------------------------------------[ Why KVM and Virt-Manager? ]--

One might wonder, why KVM was perferred over VMWare and XEN and why the
front-end Virt-Manager was selected. While VMWare provides a few advantages over
KVM and VirtualBox like Windows 3D acceleration and efficient memory
management, it is also available under a non-free license. More annoyingly, this
license also restricts commercial usage, which is not an option for MDVL.

The decision to prefer KVM over XEN mainly arose from the fact that XEN seemed
more complex and previous experiments with KVM had already shown that KVM would
be a good solution except for _some_ points which could now be addressed as
of the new version in Debian Jessie.

Virt-Manager was selected because it was reasonably simple to setup (it did not
require setting up a whole data center :) ) and did not rely on a web-interface
(current MDVL trends go toward eliminating most reasons to use a web-browser,
thus a web-interface would have been counter-productive). Also, the user
interface was similar to the previously used VirtualBox GUI and thus the
transition would be simplified.

--------------------------------------------------------------[ General Idea ]--

In order to perform the transition, the following steps were performed:

 1. Consolidation:
    It was checked which of the existing VMs were still necessary.
    ``Linked bases'' were all unlinked.
 2. Conversion:
    Virtual hard drives from VMs to be transitioned were converted.
    The following command proved to be useful:
    `qemu-img convert -f raw -O qcow2 <VIRTUALBOX-IMAGE>.vdi <KVM-IMAGE>.qcow2`
    The qcow2-format was selected because it is the native KVM format which
    supports dynamically growing storage as well as ``saving'' a running VM to
 3. Re-Creation:
    For all VMs which should be transitioned, a new virtual machine was created
    in Virt-Manager using the previously converted virtual HDD
 4. Defect fixing:
    While linux VMs could generally be transitioned this way, all Windows XP
    VMs failed to run on the new hypervisor, most newer Windows versions (except
    for Windows 8.1) failed to run on the new hypervisor and Open Indiana
    (similar to Solaris) also failed to run on the new hypervisor.
 5. Re-installation:
    All VMs where transitioning failed were re-installed with Virt-Manager.
    This way, all VMs were able to run, but Open Indiana networking remained

{\img{transition_overview}{Transition overview}}

On the left in the transition overview picture, you can see the list of VMs
before the transition and on the right you can see the list of VMs after the
transition. Successful migrations are connected with green lines,
re-installations with yellow lines and not-migrated VMs are crossed with red

Btw. if you are migrating Windows XP VMs, check
I did not know of that page when migrating my VMs, thus I re-installed all
of the WindowsXP VMs, but you might save time, trying out the solutions
suggested in the linked article.

-----------------------------------------[ Recommended default Configuration ]--

Unlike VirtualBox, KVM offers a lot of configuration options. Many of them are
exposed to the Virt-Manager GUI and thus have to be considered by the user. It
can be very time-consuming to tune these settings which is why I am presenting
a few options I have chosen for different OS here.

My recommended default configuration is not primarily targeted at performance,
but compatibility instead. If you require the highest performance, you will
probably need to tune the options even further.

{\img{vm_preference_virtio}{I choose Virtio whenever possible.}}

I prefer to use the ``Virtio''-type of virtual devices, i.\,e. ``Virtio''-bus
for virtual HDDs and ``virtio'' for the network-card type. Without any testing,
I expect those devices with VM-optimized guest drivers to give the highest
performance and support the most advanced features. In order to use
virtio-devices with Windows, you will need to install the guest utilities
for Windows (see ``Windows Guest Utils'' below).

Also, for virtual displays I always choose ``Video QXL''. If you want to try
some advanced (and highly experimental, in my tests: unsuccessful) graphics
acceleration, you might also be interested to select ``VMVGA'' to use VMWare's
graphics driver. As you can see in the picture, I install a virtual tablet
which is essential for all mouse-enhanced OS, because otherwise the pointer on
the guest system can get out of sync with the host's GUI.

{\img{vm_preference_nocbi}{Do not use this option. Instead power off the VM
and configure and install it afterwards}}

I suggest you to always configure the VM as much as possible before doing the
installation. In order to do this, you need to shut down the VM once it was
started after the setup initiated after creating a new VM. Only then, you can
see and modify all of the virtual hardware (there is also a customization in
the setup which will not allow you to configure everything). Be sure to also
add a virtual CD drive _and_ make it bootable under ``Boot Options''
for OS installation.

For Windows guests, I never choose to copy the host CPU configuration. This
originates from the idea, that I want to be able to migrate the VM to a new
(or just another) machine without having to re-activate Windows. But as Windows
ties it's activation to some of the processor's properties, I prefer to go
for a generic model. As with the ``virtio'' preference (see above) I generally
go for the generic ``kvm64'' option if possible (works for Windows XP).
Alternatively I choose old CPUs which I imagine many (and all newer) systems can
``provide'' like ``Nehalem'' (for Windows 8.1) or ``core2duo'' (for Windows 10).
If you are using AMD processors or require enhanced performance, you might want
to choose differently and consider the ``Copy host CPU configuration'' switch.

{\img{vm_preference_current_max}{A sensible configuration for a memory-intensive
VM which does not have to share it's host with many other VMs.}}

I do not have recommendations on RAM and CPU amounts/counts but I generally
recommend you to configure a lower ``Current allocation'' than
``Maximum allocation''. I have yet to fully understand, what these mean, but I
experienced the situation where a virtual Linux VM's CPU and RAM count/amount
could be increased while the VM was online up to the amount configured in
``Maximum allocation''. If you have long-running or computationally intensive
VMs, it might even be advisable to give the host's maximum for
``Maximum allocation'' values.

For all options not mentioned here, I generally go for the defaults. See the
specific sections below for recommendations for specific cases.

--------------------------------------------------------[ Virtual Networking ]--

Virtual Networking is more difficult with Virt-Manager but also more powerful
than with VirtualBox. While VirtualBox generally configures networking on a
per-VM basis, Virt-Manager requires the creation of ``Virtual Networks'' which
also need to be ``Active'' before they can be used by any of the VMs.

{\img{vm_net_default}{Virtual network which allows Internet access}}

Generally, the situation is similar to VirtualBox: For every VM we need to
decide if we want it to be separated from the host's network via a NAT or if
we want to make it part of the host's network (``bridge''-mode) or if we want
to restrict communication to be between virtual machine guest and host only.

{\img{vm_net_nointernet}{Virtual network which disallows Internet access}}

In order to separate VMs from the rest of the network, I have configured the
virtual network ``default'' to be a NAT and in order to keep old operating
systems (like Windows 2000 and Windows XP) away from the Internet, I have
created a special virtual network ``nointernet'' as an ``isolated network''.

--------------------------------------------------------[ Enabling VM saving ]--

A feature I heavily use with any virtualization software is the ability to
``save'' a VM's state and later restore it to the exact status it had when it
was ``saved''. This feature is similar to real computer's ``hibernation''
(suspend to disk) feature but unlike that, ``saving'' a VM also works very well
with linux guests and one can usually be very confident that even
running/calculating applications can be paused and continued later this way.
Finally, VM saving permits pausing a calculation, performing some other task
and later resuming it. All in all, this feature is just essential.

{\img{vm_saving_error}{Noo.... VM saving impossible?}}

I was very surprised, to find out that KVM and Virt-Manager often give an error
message when attempting to use this feature (which is in the GUI's menu).

Gladly, the message explains the reason and it can be fixed by directly editing
a VMs configuration file and then restarting the VM.

In order to fix it, it is recommended to invoke `virsh edit <VM-NAME>` and
search for `invtsc`. Delete the corresponding line and VM saving should work
after restarting the VM.

{\img{vm_saving_line}{Delete the line with invtsc... and
``Error saving domain: Requested operation is not valid:
domain has CPU feature: invtsc'' is fixed!}}

If you want to do this manually instead, open `/etc/libvirt/qemu/<VM-NAME>.xml`
and edit it as suggested before. Then you need to restart the libvirtd service
(First stop the VM, then restart `libvirtd`, then start the VM).
Either of these methods require root permissions. The first method is really
preferable, because the service is not required to be restarted but the manual
variant is probably useful if you want to automatically deploy VM configuration

Update 2016/07/23: There is another nasty error which can occur upon saving the
VM. It yields a similar error dialog as above but has the message
`Error saving domain: internal error: unable to execute QEMU command 'migrate':
State blocked by non-migratable device '0000:00:06.0/ich9_ahci'`. This
one seems to be pretty unknown around the web, the solution can be found in
a Korean\ E-Book( I gather you
might not understand Korean (I can't understand it either), so
Google\ Translate(
is useful. The solution to this error is simple: Remove all SATA controllers and
SATA devices from the virtual machine.

{\img{vm_saving_sata}{Remove SATA controllers to fix
``Error saving domain: internal error: unable to execute QEMU command 'migrate':
State blocked by non-migratable device 0000:00:06.0/ich9_ahci''}}

------------------------------[ Enabling Nested Virtualization on Intel CPUs ]--

Shortly after transitioning to Virt-Manager and KVM, I wanted to be able to
employ nested virtualization similar to how it was possible with VirtualBox
before. This feature is not all that important, but there are certain use cases
for it. Luckily, I found a blog-post(
nested-virtualization-with-kvm-intel/) which explains how to do it:

 1. Enable the host system's kernel to do nested virtualization by passing the
    parameter `nested=1` to the kernel module `kvm_intel`. To do this, check the
    status with `cat /sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/nested` (should output `N`
    for not enabled, otherwise you do not need to continue with this step
    because it is already enabled). Then, save or shutdown all VMs and do
    `rmmod kvm_intel && modprobe kvm_intel nested=y` to enable the parameter
    and then check the status again.
 2. Store this parameter permanently by creating a new file below
    `/etc/modprobe.d` (e.g. `/etc/modprobe.d/my-intel-kvm.conf`) with this line
    `options kvm-intel nested=y`
 3. Enable the `vmx` feature for VMs. The easiest way to achieve this, is by
    selecting ``Copy Host CPU configuration'' under
    ``Processor/Configuration'' for each VM. Otherwise, you may also edit the
    VM's XML configuration as described for ``Enabling VM saving'' and add
    a line with the `vmx` feature.

When I tested this, these steps made it _work_ but not very quickly... The
nested VM's performance is much slower than the ``first-level'' VM...

-----------------------------------[ Improving Linux Guest Screen Resolution ]--

Use ``Video QXL'' as recommended above. Generally, a few different screen
resolutions can then be selected with `xrandr` (to list all) and
`xrandr --size 800x600` to select a specific size. While this is what can be
expected of any OS, the situation can be improved by installing just two
additional packages. The following are the Debian package names, probably
different for other distributions:

 1. `xserver-xorg-video-qxl`
 2. `spice-vdagent`

Just installing them, will not immediately improve the situation.
The `spice-vdagent` also has to automatically be started whenever the
GUI is run (and the X-server has to be restarted for the new
`xserver-xorg-video-qxl` driver to take effect).

For a Debian MDVL 64 VM, I have changed the `~/.xsession` to contain these

	exec i3

This way, the `spice-vdagent` is executed upon login and just after that, the
window manager is started. It is surely also possible to use any other means
of automatically running this. `spice-vdagent` could also be launched manually
if GUI access is only rarely necessary or the VM is never rebooted.

-------------------------------------------------------[ Windows Guest Utils ]--

Generally, it is difficult to install Windows directly on a ``virtio'' drive.
Therefore, I recommend installing Windows on a virtual IDE drive and later
installing the necessary drivers.

The steps are as follows
 01. Install Windows on a virtual IDE drive
 02. Install the guest utils (see below for details)
 03. Shutdown Windows
 04. Add a virtual Virtio-HDD to the VM.
 05. Start the Windows-VM.
 06. Make sure, the new drive is installed correctly under Windows
     (Check with `diskmgmt.msc`)
 07. Uninstall the IDE controller in the Windows device manager.
     This way, Windows will be able to start from a different drive type than
 08. Shutdown Windows.
 09. Change the drive type of the first virtual drive to ``Virtio''.
 10. Remove the virtual drive added in step 4
 11. Verify Windows starts correctly.
 12. If it does not work, switch the HDD back to IDE and re-add a virtual
     Virtio-HDD. Format it in Windows to see that it is really useable.
     Then continue with step 7.

If this was a bit too short of an explaination, see the pictures below for
details on the different steps.

Installing the guest utils
   This is pretty easy as long as you get the right installer.
   Go to url( and look for a
   `spice-guest-tools-0.NNN.exe` under ``Windows binaries''. It should point
   you to an URL like
   url( where you
   can download the `.exe`-installer. Although the page suggests this is mainly
   for improved video (which it also does), the installer also installs network
   and HDD drivers for ``virtio'' devices.

{\img{wguest_addvirtio}{Step 4: Adding a Virtio-HDD to a VM}}

{\img{wguest_findvirtio}{Step 6: Windows has successfully recognized the
additional virtual Virtio-HDD}}

{\img{wguest_uninstide}{Step 7: Uninstall the IDE controller in Windows}}

------------------------------------------------[ Windows XP: Shared folders ]--

A feature I very much liked of VirtualBox was the ``Shared Folders'' option.
This way, I could expose a directory on the host computer to the virtual machine
without giving the VM network or Internet access. An important advantage of
``Shared Folders'' over virtual ``external HDDs'' was the ability to read and
write to shared folders from both systems, the host and the guest, at the same
time. This way, I could run a compiler inside the VM and the editor to enter the
code outside the VM without any time difference from a local compiler.

Unfortunately, KVM + Virt-Manager do not support this for Windows guests.
For Linux and probably other operating systems, there is a facility
called ``Filesystem passthrough'' which does just about the same thing as
``Shared Folders'' in VirtualBox. I have not tested that feature, but I expect
it to ``just work'' for Linux guests. For an example of how to use this,
check url(

For Windows guest systems, we are left to ``create our own'' means of sharing
files between host and guest. A very user-unfriendly means of achieving this
is probably the following:

 1. Adding a second virtual HDD to the VM
 2. Writing files to the virtual HDD in the VM
 3. Unmounting the virtual HDD in the VM
 4. Accessing the virtual HDD from outside the VM (read/write)
 5. Mounting the virtual HDD in the VM
 6. Continue with Step 2.

I have actually experimented with this and the result is in two words:
Not usable. Variations of this can be thought (like USB-passthrough of a
real USB-Stick or such) but all of them share the same issue: There is no
simple concurrent accessing the shared files.

Therefore we are left with another option often suggested when searching the
web for keywords like ``kvm share files windows guest'': Running a server on
our host system and making the guest system access that server in order to
exchange files.

The most commonly reported idea is setting up a Samba-Server, it seems there
is a means of setting this up ``on the fly'' if configured correctly, see
the discussion at ServerFault(
for details.

I do not like the idea of installing a server just to create Windows shares
which can then be accessed by Windows guests. I did not like the idea of the
guest being able to access a server on the host at all... but as there does not
seem to be another solution yet, I want to use the SSH server which I already
run on all host systems and which I know how to configure (unlike Samba).

Unlike the Samba-solution which works with many Windows versions, at least
Windows XP to Windows 10, the SSH-filesystem solution probably only works with
Windows XP (I have only checked it with Windows XP). If you are on a newer
Windows version and want to use SSH and have checked the filesystem solution
does not work, you might consider using a tool like WinSCP(
in order to transfer files between host and guest. Or see, if you can use
a newer ``Dokan'' and ``Win-SSHFS'':

The solution I took, uses a set of programs similar to the Linux `sshfs` to
connect a Windows drive letter to a SSH connection. In order to set this up,
you need

 * Dokan 0.6.0,
 * .NET Framework 4.0,
 * win-sshfs,

Newer versions, except for the dot-Net Framework are probably OK as well, if
any of the links fail, notify me because (1) I still have the files, so you need
not be stuck at this stage and (2) I may attempt to update the links if it is
just that the download location has changed.

Compare the SHA256 checksums if you are not sure you have the correct setup


Then, install these programs in the Windows guest. Create a key for the Windows
guest to access your server via SSH. Encrypted keys (needing a passphrase) do
not always work which is why I recommend you to create a special user for the
virtual machine and create a separate key for that user so that it's access
permissions can be limited.

I have noted these points to setup the ``Linux-side''

 1. Create a new user: `adduser vmuser`
 2. Disable login for that user: `passwd -l vmuser`
 3. Install/Add key `` to `/home/vmuser/.ssh/authorized_keys`
 4. Install key `id_rsa` to the VM

A key-pair can be created with `ssh-keygen -b 16384 -t rsa` (needs some time
because 16384 is a large key length by current standards). You can not remember
the key anyway, so why not go for a longer one :)

Having installed all the programs on Windows, you should be presented with a
small yellow icon in the task bar. Click on it and you will get a window where
you can configure connections.

{\img{sshfs}{Win-SSHFS has been setup correctly.}}

As you can see, configuration is pretty straight-forward. Just enter the details
every SSH client needs IP-Address, Port, Username and authentification. In order
to configure the public key authentication, just select ``PrivateKey'' and give
the path of your private key file. The field below the file is for a password
-- when I attempted to use an encrypted key, it gave me an error message saying
that AES was not supported or such. Thus, I did not use an encrypted keyfile.
The ``Directory''-field refers to the host system and the ``Drive Letter'' is
for the Windows guest. Finally, you can decide to automatically establish the
connection or not.

Once setup, it almost feels like with VirtualBox' ``Shared Folders'' before.
However, there _is_ a network connection. And once you ``Save'' the VM and
reboot the host, then ``Restore'' the VM, it will have lost connection
(Windows is not immediately realizing this) and you will have to take some
effort to restart the DokanMounter-service and the `win-sshfs.exe`.

I did not yet manage to improve this procedure beyond clicking a few error
messages and waiting for successful connection multiple times... it is probably
faster to just shut down VMs which use Win-SSHFS instead of ``saving'' them.

------------------------------------------------------[ After the transition ]--

In summary, the transition provided a few benefits but also resulted in new
problems. While there had been problems each time a transition had been
attempted before, this time, they could be reduced to a usable minimum.

Still, this also means that as long as you are using VirtualBox and do not
experience stability or licensing issues, there is not much of an incentive
to switch.

Improvements archieved by transitioning to KVM + virt-manager
 + Running a VM no longer opens a graphical console by default.
   While this could be considered a minor point, it enhances usability very
   much not to pop up a window for just starting up a VM.
 + Shutting down VMs is more reliable, because whenever the outer system
   is shut down, all VMs are automatically shut down via ACPI signals as well.
   This is very convenient.
 + KVM (like VMWare) supports memory ballooning. This means, that not all RAM
   assigned to a VM is used on the host system. Instead, only the memory
   actually used by the guest is consumed on the host. It should still be noted
   that this feature is not as efficient as VMWare's implementation.
 + Accessing VMs running on remote machines via ``consoles'' showing the
   graphical content and allowing to startup/configure/send special keys
   is possible similar to (but not as complex and not as mighty) VMWare vSphere.
 + Virt-manager does not rely on QT. This finally opens the way to ban all QT
   applications from MDVL reducing the OS' disk-space usage by a huge amount and
   also enhancing RAM usage by no longer loading multiple GUI frameworks.

Unsolved issues and new problems
 - It is generally not simple to add virtual CDs and DVDs to running VMs.
   This might be considered a minor annoyance but is really a hassle because
   the virtual DVD to be used most often is mazentral/12(33) which is also
   bootable and thus it is required to enter `hd` on every VM startup to
   continue booting.
 - Although support for this in Linux-guests is probably soon to be available,
   KVM still lacks the ability to simply accelerate 3D-rendering in
   Windows-VMs. It has not been tested if it might be possible to add a second
   graphics card and use the PCIe-passthrough/virtualization facility to make
   the real hardware available to the VM.
 - It has been noted that even with good (probably not the _best_) configuration
   we notice a degradation in the guest OS' GUI performance as long as no
   additional software is installed on the guest. As useful software exists
   for Windows and Linux guests, this is not so much of an issue. And it has
   to be noted that VirtualBox was slightly better without the guest addons
   than KVM but still not perfect. Any virtualization solution performs best
   with the guest tools installed. (Who would have thought...)
 - Guest operating systems experience multiple issues if saved and later
   restored. This function was much more reliable with VirtualBox and it is
   often required to fiddle with libvirt-configuration files in order to enable
   the feature in the first place.
 - ``Shared folders'' for Windows-guests are not available with native KVM
   technology. Thus, some sort of server services on the host have to be used
   and of course this does not play well with saving and restoring running VM
   instances (because the VM believes the network connection still exists but
   the host does not even know that connection). This has always been my most
   problematic point for a transition to KVM and now still proves to be a huge
   degradation over the situation before.

Although this has often been claimed, VM performance could not be verified to
be largely improved or degenerated. KVM and VirtualBox (and VMWare) all perform
just about equal in terms of CPU performance (sorry, no accurate measuring

For RAM usage it can definitely be said that VMware performs best, KVM performs
OK and VirtualBox uses a lot of memory on the host system. (I often recall,
although I have unfortunately not made any screenshot of this, the situation
where I ran a Windows XP VM under VMWare and had a lower application-used memory
size on the host-system than Windows XP memory usage as reported by the
task-manager. I know that comparing these values is not ``correct'' but this can
be interpreted as ``guest uses more memory than host'' and that is a very nice
idea, even if it is not the whole truth :) )

In terms of disk I/O I do not have any measures, which is why I can not tell.
Virt-Manager offers a few options on I/O caching which sounded like they would
not likely improve the situation over the default, but those might probably
help in specific scenarios.

Virtual networking with KVM is often faster (by orders of magnitude like
40 MiB/s with KVM and 4 MiB/s with VirtualBox) than in VirtualBox, I do not
have any comparison with VMWare here. Also, this highly depends on the type of
virtual network card, virtual network configuration (like NAT) and where the
actual target is located (on the same machine or remotely on the network).

All in all, I would summarize my performance impressions as: KVM is probably
slightly better than VirtualBox, VMWare is probably better than both and it
does not matter in the general case. In specific cases, however, it can not
generally be said that one is faster than the other. It probably highly depends
on the scenario and VirtualBox can probably not be recommended for
networking-intensive scenarios. If RAM is important, VMWare is probably the

---------------------------------------------------[ Information to be added ]--

 * Online Image Resizing
   -> url(
 * Recommended shared folder settings for Linux / how the settings compare...
 * (NFS) remote setup: need to put a key for local user as well as root
 * `<cpu mode='host-passthrough'/>` for nested virtualization.
 * PCIe pass-through: `intel_iommu=on`, pass all parts of the device.
 * VMS do not shutdown completely (permission denied if doing this with virsh)
   Need to amend AppArmor profile
   -> url(
 * Docker shared network device

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