Grafana, Influxdb and Telegraf for System and Internet Monitoring

Overview

This repository contains resources for building a local system monitoring composed of the following components:

This is largely running as-is at the Ma_Sys.ma. The following components might be interesting in other contexts, too:

System Composition

The idea of this repository is to provide sample configuration for the following use case:

To do this, the server runs the following services as individual Docker containers:

All of these services are defined in server/docker-compose.yml. All of their configuration files are collected in directory server. Their connections among each other could be visualized as follows:

.             //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
              //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
              /////                                                    /////
     o        /////  Server-Side (running in containers)               /////
    _|_       /////                                                    /////
     |        /////  +------+---------+                                /////
    / \ ---> exposed   3000 | grafana |                                /////
  Client      /////  +------+---------+                                /////
  (User)      /////            ^                                       /////
              /////            |                                       /////
              /////  +------+----------+     +----------------------+  /////
              /////  | 8086 | influxdb | <-- | telegraf-iconqualmon |  /////
//////////    /////  +------+----------+     +----------------------+  /////
//      //    /////            ^             (optional for Internet    /////
// Cli- //    /////            |              connectivity monitoring) /////
// ent  //    /////  +------+---------+                                /////
//      ---> exposed   5086 | stunnel |                                /////
// Tel- //    /////  +------+---------+                                /////
// egr- //    /////                                                    /////
// af   //    //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//////////    //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

The clients connect using Telegraf. System metrics are best acquired by running on the actual system. Hence, Telegraf is run as a regular systemd service (not in a Docker container).

Database connections are secured using TLS server and client certificates. As Influxdb does not support client certificates directly, stunnel is used to handle TLS traffic.

Each host will need individual configuration e.g. graphics card metrics may not be available on all hosts, VMs will need different metrics compared to physical systems etc. To address this need, a script to generate an installation script for Telegraf is provided as genclientinstaller.sh. See section Client Installation for details.

Server Installation

TLS Configuration Preparation

Before running the server, necessary TLS certificates and keys need to be gernated. Directory scripts-tlsmanagement contains some scripts to simplify the process (a little).

The following certificates and keys are needed in the end:

1. Configure Server Host IP

Proper TLS requires that certificates match the hosts they are created for. stunnel can be configured to ignore this such that the individual clients do not need their certificates to be tied to their hostnames or IP addresses. For the server side, however, the server’s hostname (or IP) needs to match whats given in the certificate thus the first step is to write the server’s IP address to file scripts-tlsmanagement/keys/extfile.cnf. For instance, if the server’s address is 192.168.1.139, then configure the file as follows:

subjectAltName = IP:192.168.1.139

2. Generate CA and Server Keys

Script scripts-tlsmanagement/geninitialkeys.sh generates the CA and server keys and certificates using the following openssl commands:

# set RSA strength in bits
strength=8192
# generate CA certificate
openssl req -days 36500 -nodes -newkey rsa:$strength -keyform PEM -keyout keys/ca.key -x509 -outform PEM -out keys/ca.cer
# generate server key
openssl genrsa -out keys/server.key $strength
# generate server certificate signing request
openssl req -new -key keys/server.key -out keys/server.req -sha256
# sign the server's key using the CA's certificate
openssl x509 -req -days 36500 -in keys/server.req -CA keys/ca.cer -CAkey keys/ca.key -CAcreateserial -outform PEM -out keys/server.cer -sha256 -extfile keys/extfile.cnf

All resulting keys are written to the keys directory. Note that expiry is set to 100 years here to avoid monitoring from stopping due to key expiry. If you consider it important, you can of course set a shorter validity.

3. Generate Client Key

Generate a client key using script scripts-tlsmanagement/genclientkeys.sh which runs the following commands:

# generate client key
openssl genrsa -out "keys/$clnt/client.key" "$strength"
# generate client certificate signing request
openssl req -new -key "keys/$clnt/client.key" -out "keys/$clnt/client.req"
# sign the client's key using the CA's certificate
openssl x509 -req -in "keys/$clnt/client.req" -CA keys/ca.cer \
            -CAkey keys/ca.key -extensions client -outform PEM \
            -out "keys/$clnt/client.cer"

4. Distribute Keys to the Server

By configuration from stunnel.conf and docker-compose.yml, the following key files are required on the server:

A working set of files can be obtained by performing the following steps:

# copy server's private key
cp keys/server.key ../server/keys-server
# assemble server's certificate among with the CA's certificate
cat keys/server.cer keys/ca.cer > ../server/keys-server/server-ca.cer
# assemble all client keys
cat keys/*/client.cer > ../server/keys-server/allclients.cer

Make sure that keys-server and its files are owned by user 101 (that’s what stunnel runs under inside the Docker container).

Password Configuration

Passwords can be configured either through environment variables or directly in docker-compose.yml. To easily set the environment variables, create file server/.env with contents of the following scheme (without the comments).

GF_SECURITY_ADMIN_PASSWORD=password1         # Grafana password
INFLUXDB_ADMIN_PASSWORD=password2            # Influxdb admin password
INFLUXDB_READ_USER_PASSWORD=password3        # Influxdb read-only
INFLUXDB_WRITE_USER_PASSWORD=password4       # Influxdb write-only
MASYSMAWRITER_PASSWORD=password4
MASYSMAREADER_PASSWORD=password3

Passwords INFLUXDB_READ_USER_PASSWORD and MASYSMAREADER_PASSWORD as well as INFLUXDB_WRITE_USER_PASSWORD and MASYSMA_READ_USER_PASSWORD need to match (otherwise database connectivity will fail).

Internet Connectivity

If you want to use the Internect Connectivity dashboard, be sure to configure different URLs and servers in server/iconqualnmon/telegraf.conf

Run

The containers can be started with docker-compsoe from directory server:

# docker-compose up grafana influxdb stunnel

If you have configured the Internet Connectivity settings in server/iconqualnmon/telegraf.conf you can start all containers (i.e. including the optional telegraf-iconqualmon service) with:

# docker-compose up

By default, all data will be stored within the respective containers. While this allows easy testing and cleanup, it also effectively disables persistence. Once you intend to run the containers more permanently, edit docker-compose.yml and enable the commented-out mappings from the volumes sections (grafana directory needs to belong to user 472). Change the host-side according to your local configuration and then re-create all containers and this time run them with docker-compse up -d to run them in background.

Client Installation

If you are running the Internet Connectivity dashboard, the server installation may be enough. If you want to monitor individual systems, of course, they need to run a local Telegraf instance to gather system metrics.

Script scripts-clientmon/genclieninstaller.sh is prepared to generate installation scripts to be used to install the client on Debian systems. The idea is to package all necessary key material, configuration and setup scripts into a single “installer script” such that adding new clients is reasonably easy.

Before using it, create a file .env next to genclientinstaller.sh with the following conents:

keydir=".../clients/$1"
cacert=".../ca.cer"
MASYSMA_INFLUXDB=...

The dots need to be set according to your local file structure and network:

keydir
Set this to a directory where the key material for the current client can be found.
cacert
Set this to the ca.cer file’s location
MASYSMA_INFLUXDB
Set this to the server’s hostname where the Influxdb is running.

After this configuration, invoke

$ ./genclientinstaller.sh <client> > install-on-<client>.sh

to generate a setup script. This will include the key material and configuration data to use on that client. Be sure to tweak the generated telegraf.conf before running install-on-<client>.sh on the target machine as root.

Note: By its original package, Telegraf runs as a separate user. Given that it might be interesting to also monitor Docker, however, it becomes necessary to effectively give root permissions to Telegraf (either by adding it to the docker group or by running it as root). If you do not want to monitor Docker (or SMART or other things that require root), consider changing genclientinstaller.sh accordingly.

Dashboards

Internet Connectivity

This dashboard is intended to show a continuous measure of connection quality be displaying the timings of regular ping packets and TCP connections.

Note: In case you configured different hostnames in Telegraf, you may need to edit the panels to use your host names as filters rather than the ones provided in the sample configuration.

Internet Connectivity Dashboard

Internet Connectivity Dashboard

The screen is divided into nine parts with three entries per row.

In the first row, all times are given in milliseconds.

First row: Ping
Probably the most important panel. This is displaying the timings of ping requests. Faolied pings are indicated by a spike in the bold red line resultcode.

This panel’s queries are largely independent of the configuration:

SELECT max("maximum_response_ms") FROM "ping" WHERE $timeFilter
                GROUP BY time($__interval), "url" fill(null)`
SELECT MAX("result_code") FROM "ping" WHERE $timeFilter
                GROUP BY time($__interval) fill(null)
First row: Ping Hist
A histogram of ping results. Here, one can see that most pings finish in just under 16 ms and only a small fraction requires more than 18 ms.

The qureies’ WHERE clauses need to be edited to match the Telegraf configuration:

-- For ping 8.8.4.4
SELECT max("maximum_response_ms") FROM "ping" WHERE url = '8.8.4.4'
            AND $timeFilter GROUP BY time($__interval) fill(null) 
-- For ping masysma.lima-city.de
SELECT max("maximum_response_ms") FROM "ping" WHERE url = 'masysma.lima-city.de'
            AND $timeFilter GROUP BY time($__interval) fill(null) 

In the second row, all times are given in seconds.

Second row: HTTP Response Time
Similar to the Ping panel, this one displays the duration of the download of a small webpage through HTTPS. Again, a bold red line response may spike to show failed connections.

The queries for this panel are generic again:

SELECT max("result_code") FROM "http_response" WHERE $timeFilter
                GROUP BY time($__interval) fill(null)
SELECT max("response_time") FROM "http_response" WHERE $timeFilter
                GROUP BY time($__interval), "server" fill(null)
Second Row: Response Time Historgram
Presents a histogram display of the measured HTTP response times.
-- Response time masysma.lima-city.de
SELECT max("response_time") FROM "http_response"
    WHERE ("server" = 'https://masysma.lima-city.de/31/web_main.xhtml')
        AND $timeFilter GROUP BY time($__interval) fill(null)
-- Response Time www.telekom.de
SELECT max("response_time") FROM "http_response"
    WHERE ("server" = 'https://www.telekom.de/start')
        AND $timeFilter GROUP BY time($__interval) fill(null)

The third row is dedicated to displaying numbers of failures.

Third row: content match
This special panel shows the number of times the content retrieved through HTTPS matched the expectations. One can see that in the screeshot, all 360 connections were successfully returning the expected content. For this matching to work, you need to configure the response_string_match and urls in Telegraf:
# server/iconqualnmon/telegraf.conf excerpt
[[inputs.http_response]]
  interval = "120s"
  urls = ["https://masysma.lima-city.de/31/web_main.xhtml"] # CONFIGURE HERE
  response_timeout = "4s"
  method = "GET"
  response_string_match = "<h1>Ma_Sys.ma Startseite"        # CONFIGURE HERE
  follow_redirects = false

The panel’s queries also need to be configured to use the correct URL:

-- match (generic)
SELECT COUNT("result_code") FROM "http_response"
    WHERE "response_string_match" = 1 AND $timeFilter
-- mismatch (configuration required)
SELECT COUNT("result_code") FROM "http_response"
    WHERE ("result_code" <> 0 OR "response_string_match"  = 0)
        AND "server" = 'https://masysma.lima-city.de/31/web_main.xhtml'
        AND $timeFilter
Third row: Tables
The remaining two panels show exact counters for failed pings and failed HTTP connections respectively. The tables are generic and need not be configured.
-- Table: Packet losses
SELECT COUNT("result_code") FROM "ping" WHERE ("percent_packet_loss" > 0 OR
        "result_code" = 1) AND $timeFilter GROUP BY "url" fill(none)
-- Table: HTTP/Web Connection Failures
SELECT COUNT("result_code") FROM "http_response"
        WHERE (http_response_code <> 200 OR response_string_match = 0 OR
            result_code <> 0) AND $timeFilter GROUP BY "server";

Few Systems Overview

This dashboard is intended to show the system health and load for about three systems (depending on screen space). It works for Linux systems and degrades gracefully if some non-essential metrics are missing.

Few Systems Overview with just a single system

Few Systems Overview with just a single system

The first six fields for each system are as follows:

  1. Uptime Indicator: The first item displayed is the system’s uptime. This metric is important to see if a server that should be always online has been restarted recently.
  2. Total RAM Indicator
  3. Total SWAP Indicator
  4. Load Average Indicator
  5. RAM used indicator
  6. SWAP used indicator

The following fields are present under special cirumstances:

apcupsd panel
If connected to an UPS supported by apcupsd (and enabled in Telegraf), two metrics are displayed: .remain displays the time the UPS may stay on battery as of now and onbat displays GRID while the system is attached to external power and the time the UPS has been running on battery if not. If apcupsd data is not available, the whole field will display NO UPS.
Docker Containers panel
Displays the number of running Docker conatiners (if reported by Telegraf).

Note: It would be interesting to display the status of RAID arrays, too, but Telegraf does not provide this as a metric. TODO z: It should be possible to do this by parsing /proc/mdstat, though.

After these special panels follow some larger tabular-style panels:

The last panel is a diagram which displays all the important system metrics in a single chart:

HDD S.M.A.R.T Values

This advanced dashboard is intended to provide an overview of the S.M.A.R.T data across the HDDs and SSDs installed across multiple systems. It is highly experimental and hints for making it more useful are welcome!

S.M.A.R.T Dashboard

S.M.A.R.T Dashboard

For each HDD, two panels are displayed:

Table: All Attributes
This table is intended to show the S.M.A.R.T values in numeric form. By using different colors, it tries to distinguish common values like 0 or 100 from less common ones. It will at most display one value per day as S.M.A.R.T data is not expected to change too rapidly.

Note: The table in their current form could see some improvements wrt. the units of data displayed and wrt. displaying only the relevant one of normalized and raw_value. The problem here is that the interpretation of attributes is manfacturer and thus essentially drive-specific and Grafana does not seem to provide a convenient means to attach the device-specific information to the table (short of hand-crafting the table for each and every invidiual drive).

Diagram: Attribute changes
Displays the differences in attributes across time. As of now, the diagram is not overly useful as it displays values that change with +1 or +2 alongside values which change +32M or +38K… Here, one may better consult the table displayed alongside the diagram and maybe consult the diagram only for the individual values (by clicking on one of the attributes)

Additional Security Considerations

While the setup proposed here has some security, it is weak in at least the following regards:


Ma_Sys.ma Website 5 (1.0.0) – no Flash, no JavaScript, no Webfont, no Copy Protection, no Mobile First. No bullshit. No GUI needed. Works with any browser.

Created: 2020/08/11 23:43:27 | Revised: 2020/08/19 00:20:40 | Tags: docker, grafana, telegraf, influxdb, telegraf, monitoring, dashboard, linux, internet, performance | Version: 1.0.0 | SRC (Pandoc MD) | GPL

Copyright (c) 2020 Ma_Sys.ma. For further info send an e-mail to Ma_Sys.ma@web.de.

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